Academic References and Recommended Reading

This section contains details of the references that were used to inform the content of the site.

Healthcare professionals who want to learn more about perinatal anxiety may find is useful to refer to these to inform their practice, supporting women in the perinatal period.

Reference List

  1. Accortt, E. E. and Wong, M. S. (2017) ‘It Is Time for Routine Screening for Perinatal Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Obstetrics and Gynecology Settings’, Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey, 72(9), pp. 553–568.
  2. Ashford, M. T. et al. (2018) ‘Feasibility and Acceptability of a Web-Based Treatment with Telephone Support for Postpartum Women With Anxiety: Randomized Controlled Trial.’, JMIR mental health. JMIR Mental Health, 5(2), p. e19. doi: 10.2196/mental.9106.
  3. Ashford, M. T., Ayers, S. and Olander, E. K. (2017) ‘Supporting women with postpartum anxiety: exploring views and experiences of specialist community public health nurses in the UK’, Health and Social Care in the Community, 25(3), pp. 1257–1264. doi: 10.1111/hsc.12428.
  4. Ashford, M. T., Olander, E. K. and Ayers, S. (2016) ‘Computer- or web-based interventions for perinatal mental health: A systematic review’, Journal of Affective Disorders. Elsevier, 197, pp. 134–146. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.02.057.
  5. Ayers, S., Coates, R. and Matthey, S. (2015) ‘Identifying Perinatal Anxiety’, in Identifying Perinatal Depression and Anxiety. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 93–107. doi: 10.1002/9781118509722.ch6.
  6. Bauer, A. et al. (2014) ‘Costs of perinatal mental health problems’. London School of Economics and Political Science. Available at: (Accessed: 29 May 2019).
  7. Beake, S., McCourt, C. and Bick, D. (2005) ‘Women’s views of hospital and community-based postnatal care: the good, the bad and the indifferent’, Evidence Based Midwifery, 3(2), pp. 80–86. Available at: (Accessed: 29 May 2019).
  8. Brunton, R. J. et al. (2018) ‘The pregnancy-related anxiety scale: A validity examination using Rasch analysis’, Journal of Affective Disorders, 236, pp. 127–135. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.116.
  9. Button, S. et al. (2017) ‘Seeking help for perinatal psychological distress: a meta-synthesis of women’s experiences’, British Journal of General Practice, p. bjgp17X692549. doi: 10.3399/bjgp17X692549.
  10. Carlsson, I.-M., Ziegert, K. and Nissen, E. (2015) ‘The relationship between childbirth self-efficacy and aspects of well-being, birth interventions and birth outcomes’, Midwifery. Churchill Livingstone, 31(10), pp. 1000–1007. doi: 10.1016/J.MIDW.2015.05.005.
  11. Coates, R., Ayers, S. and de Visser, R. (2014) ‘Women’s experiences of postnatal distress: a qualitative study’, BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. BioMed Central, 14(1), p. 359. doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-14-359.
  12. Coates, R., de Visser, R. and Ayers, S. (2015) ‘Not identifying with postnatal depression: a qualitative study of women’s postnatal symptoms of distress and need for support’, Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 36(3), pp. 114–121. doi: 10.3109/0167482X.2015.1059418.
  13. Cox, J., Holden, J. and Sagovsky, R. (1987) ‘Detection of postnatal depression: Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, pp. 1–2.
  14. Cuijpers, P. et al. (2009) ‘Computer‐Aided Psychotherapy for Anxiety Disorders: A Meta‐Analytic Review’, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 38(2), pp. 66–82. doi: 10.1080/16506070802694776.
  15. Dennis, C.-L., Falah-Hassani, K. and Shiri, R. (2017) ‘Prevalence of antenatal and postnatal anxiety: Systematic review and meta-analysis’, British Journal of Psychiatry. Cambridge University Press, 210(05), pp. 315–323. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.116.187179.
  16. Djafarova, E. and Trofimenko, O. (2017) ‘Exploring the relationships between self-presentation and self-esteem of mothers in social media in Russia’, Computers in Human Behavior, 73, pp. 20–27. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2017.03.021.
  17. Fairbrother, N. et al. (2016) ‘Perinatal anxiety disorder prevalence and incidence’, Journal of Affective Disorders. Elsevier, 200(May), pp. 148–155. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.12.082.
  18. Fallon, V. et al. (2016) ‘The Postpartum Specific Anxiety Scale: development and preliminary validation’, Archives of Women’s Mental Health. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 19(6), pp. 1079–1090. doi: 10.1007/s00737-016-0658-9.
  19. Fallon, V. et al. (2018) ‘Postpartum-specific anxiety as a predictor of infant-feeding outcomes and perceptions of infant-feeding behaviours: new evidence for childbearing specific measures of mood’, Archives of Women’s Mental Health. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 21(2), pp. 181–191. doi: 10.1007/s00737-017-0775-0.
  20. Gavin, N. I. et al. (2015) ‘Is Population-Based Identification of Perinatal Depression and Anxiety Desirable?’, Identifying Perinatal Depression and Anxiety, (2015), pp. 11–31. doi: 10.1002/9781118509722.ch1.
  21. Giardinelli, L. et al. (2012) ‘Depression and anxiety in perinatal period: prevalence and risk factors in an Italian sample’, Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 15(1), pp. 21–30. doi: 10.1007/s00737-011-0249-8.
  22. Glasheen, C., Richardson, G. A. and Fabio, A. (2010) ‘A systematic review of the effects of postnatal maternal anxiety on children’, Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 13(1), pp. 61–74. doi: 10.1007/s00737-009-0109-y.
  23. Goodman, J. H. et al. (2014) ‘CALM Pregnancy: results of a pilot study of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for perinatal anxiety’, Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 17(5), pp. 373–387. doi: 10.1007/s00737-013-0402-7.
  24. Higgins, A. et al. (2018) ‘Barriers to midwives and nurses addressing mental health issues with women during the perinatal period: The Mind Mothers study’, Journal of Clinical Nursing. Wiley/Blackwell (10.1111), 27(9–10), pp. 1872–1883
  25. Howard, L. M. et al. (2014) Series Perinatal mental health 1 Non-psychotic mental disorders in the perinatal period, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61276-9.
  26. Huizink, A. C. et al. (2004) ‘Is pregnancy anxiety a distinctive syndrome?’, Early Human Development. Elsevier, 79(2), pp. 81–91. doi: 10.1016/J.EARLHUMDEV.2004.04.014.
  27. Jorm, A. F. and Kelly, C. M. (2007) ‘Improving the public’s understanding and response to mental disorders’, Australian Psychologist. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd (10.1111), 42(2), pp. 81–89. doi: 10.1080/00050060701280565.
  28. Law, K. H. et al. (2018) ‘Understanding and alleviating maternal postpartum distress: Perspectives from first-time mothers in Australia’, Social Science & Medicine. Pergamon, 204, pp. 59–66. doi: 10.1016/J.SOCSCIMED.2018.03.022.
  29. Lazarus, K. and Rossouw, P. J. (2015) ‘Mother’s expectations of parenthood: The impact of prenatal expectations on self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and stress post birth.’, International Journal of Neuropsychotherapy, 3(2), pp. 102–123.
  30. Leach, L. S., Poyser, C. and Fairweather-Schmidt, K. (2017) ‘Maternal perinatal anxiety: A review of prevalence and correlates’, Clinical Psychologist, 21(1), pp. 4–19. doi: 10.1111/cp.12058.
  31. Lefkovics, E. et al. (2018) ‘Effect of maternal depression and anxiety on mother’s perception of child and the protective role of social support’, Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology. Routledge, 36(4), pp. 434–448.
  32. Lonstein, J. S. (2007) ‘Regulation of anxiety during the postpartum period’, Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 28(2–3), pp. 115–141. doi: 10.1016/j.yfrne.2007.05.002.
  33. Marchesi, C. et al. (2016) ‘Clinical management of perinatal anxiety disorders: A systematic review’, Journal of Affective Disorders, 190, pp. 543–550. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.11.004.
  34. Martini, J. et al. (2015) ‘Risk factors and course patterns of anxiety and depressive disorders during pregnancy and after delivery: A prospective-longitudinal study’, Journal of Affective Disorders, 175, pp. 385–395. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.01.012.
  35. Matthey, S. et al. (2003) ‘Diagnosing postpartum depression in mothers and fathers: whatever happened to anxiety?’, Journal of Affective Disorders. Elsevier, 74(2), pp. 139–147. doi: 10.1016/S0165-0327(02)00012-5.
  36. Matthey, S. and Ross-Hamid, C. (2011) ‘The validity of DSM symptoms for depression and anxiety disorders during pregnancy’, Journal of Affective Disorders. Elsevier, 133(3), pp. 546–552
  37. Matthies, L. M. et al. (2017) ‘Maternal self-confidence during the first four months postpartum and its association with anxiety and early infant regulatory problems’, Infant Behavior and Development, 49, pp. 228–237. doi: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2017.09.011.
  38. McLeish, J. and Redshaw, M. (2017) ‘Mothers’ accounts of the impact on emotional wellbeing of organised peer support in pregnancy and early parenthood: a qualitative study’, BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. BioMed Central, 17(1), p. 28. doi: 10.1186/s12884-017-1220-0.
  39. Meades, R. and Ayers, S. (2011) ‘Anxiety measures validated in perinatal populations: A systematic review’, Journal of Affective Disorders, 133(1–2), pp. 1–15. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2010.10.009.
  40. Meins, E. et al. (2001) ‘Rethinking maternal sensitivity: Mothers’ comments on infants’ mental processes predict security of attachment at 12 months’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 42(5), pp. 637–648. doi: 10.1017/S0021963001007302.
  41. Moore, D. and Ayers, S. (2011) ‘A review of postnatal mental health websites: help for healthcare professionals and patients’, Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 14(6), pp. 443–452. doi: 10.1007/s00737-011-0245-z.
  42. Moore, D., Drey, N. and Ayers, S. (2017) ‘Use of Online Forums for Perinatal Mental Illness, Stigma, and Disclosure: An Exploratory Model.’, JMIR mental health. JMIR Mental Health, 4(1), p. e6. doi: 10.2196/mental.5926.
  43. Moore, D., & Harrison, V. (2018). Advice for Health Care Professionals and Users: An Evaluation of Websites for Perinatal Anxiety. JMIR mental health, 5(4), e11464. doi: 10.2196/11464.
  44. Murray, L. et al. (1999) ‘The socioemotional development of 5-year-old children of postnatally depressed mothers’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 40(8), pp. 1259–1271. doi: 10.1017/S002196309900476X.
  45. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2014) Antenatal and postnatal mental health: clinical management and service guidance. London: NICE. Available at: (Accessed: 29 May 2019).
  46. NHS England (2018) The Perinatal Mental Health Care Pathways NHS England and NHS Improvement. Available at: (Accessed: 28 October 2019).
  47. O’Donnell, K. J. et al. (2014) ‘The persisting effect of maternal mood in pregnancy on childhood psychopathology’, Development and Psychopathology, 26(02), pp. 393–403. doi: 10.1017/S0954579414000029.
  48. Oddo-Sommerfeld, S. et al. (2016) ‘Longitudinal effects of dysfunctional perfectionism and avoidant personality style on postpartum mental disorders: Pathways through antepartum depression and anxiety’, Journal of Affective Disorders. Elsevier, 191, pp. 280–288. doi: 10.1016/J.JAD.2015.11.040.
  49. Paul, I. M. et al. (2013) ‘Postpartum Anxiety and Maternal-Infant Health Outcomes’, Pediatrics, 131(4), pp. e1218–e1224. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-2147.
  50. Phillips, J. et al. (2009) ‘Maternally focused worry’, Archives of Women’s Mental Health. Springer Vienna, 12(6), pp. 409–418. doi: 10.1007/s00737-009-0091-4.
  51. Ross, L. E. and McLean, L. M. (2006) ‘Anxiety disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum period: A systematic review.’, The Journal of clinical psychiatry, 67(8), pp. 1285–98. Available at: (Accessed: 13 December 2018).
  52. Somerville, S. et al. (2014) ‘The Perinatal Anxiety Screening Scale: development and preliminary validation’, Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 17(5), pp. 443–454. doi: 10.1007/s00737-014-0425-8.
  53. Stevenson-Hinde, J. et al. (2016) ‘Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment’, in Maternal Sensitivity: Mary Ainsworth’s Enduring Influence on Attachment Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications. Taylor and Francis Inc., pp. 176–194
  54. Wardrop, A. A. and Popadiuk, N. E. (2013) ‘The Qualitative Report Women’ s Experiences with Postpartum Anxiety: Expectations, Relationships, and Sociocultural Influences Recommended APA Citation’, The Qualitative Report, 18(3), pp. 1–21. Available at: (Accessed: 13 December 2018).
  55. Woolhouse, H. et al. (2009) ‘Seeking help for anxiety and depression after childbirth: results of the Maternal Health Study’, Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 12(2), pp. 75–83. doi: 10.1007/s00737-009-0049-6.